The frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura were commissioned by Pope Julius II (r. 1503-13) and painted by Raphael (1483-1520) between 1508 and 1511.
The room was the pope's library/study and the frescoes on the walls depict the themes of Theology, Philosophy, Poetry and Justice. Personifications of the same four themes are depicted in the tondi in the ceiling. The corner panels illustrate related subjects: Adam and Eve, the Prime Mover, Apollo and Marsyas, and the Judgement of Solomon.
The Stanza della Segnatura is one of four rooms which are collectively known as the Stanze di Raphael.