The Stanza dell' Incendio was frescoed between 1514 and 1517 for Pope Leo X (r. 1513-21). The frescoes were designed by Raphael, but mostly executed by his pupils, including Giulio Romano and Francesco Penni.
The frescoes depict Leo X acting out the notable deeds of two earlier popes who shared his regnal name, namely Leo III (r. 795-816) and Leo IV (r. 847-55). The four frescoes are the Fire in the Borgo (which gave the room its name), the Coronation of Charlemagne, the Victory of Leo IV at Ostia, and the Oath of Leo III.
The frescoes on the ceiling are by Pietro Vannucci (1446-1523), better known as Perugino, who was Raphael's master.
The Stanza dell' Incendio served Pope Leo X as a dining room.