The Fontana dell' Acqua Felice (1585-88), better known as the Fontana del Mosè (Fountain of Moses), was commissioned by Pope Sixtus V (r. 1585-90) and designed by the aptly-named Domenico Fontana (1543-1607).
The fountain was supplied by the Acqua Felice, the first aqueduct to be built in Rome since the days of antiquity, which was named in honour of Pope Sixtus V, whose original name was Felice Peretti. The Acqua Felice was not built from scratch, but used parts of three ancient aqueducts to transport water from the source at Pantano Borghese.
In the centre of the fountain stands Moses, the work of Prospero Antichi (1555-99). The bas-relief to the left is by Giambattista della Porta (1535-1616) and depicts Aaron offering the Israelites water to drink. The right relief is by Flaminio Vacca (1538-1605) and depicts Joshua leading the Israelites across the river Jordan to defeat Jericho.
The four lions are copies of ancient Egyptian works; the originals having been removed by Pope Gregory XVI (r. 1831-46), who wanted them for the Egyptian museum he had set up in the Vatican.
The fountain is surmounted by the coat of arms of Pope Sixtus V, which is flanked by two angels, who are amusingly depicted towelling themselves down.